Blue paint becomes available at level 28, you can make it in the mixer, from lapis ore and resin. Ochre becomes available at level 23. You make it in the mill, with copper ore and clay bowls.
Needles are made in the carpentry workshop, from claws, scrappers, and strings. You can start making them from level 14.
The palette is made in the carpentry workshop, from ochre and blue paint. It becomes available from level 31.
Butter is produced in the mixer, starting from level 21. You need milk and salt for it.